[178][179] There are several ancient Tamil, Greek, Chinese and Roman literary references to high carbon Indian steel since the time of Alexander's India campaign. These recent emigrants have most often moved to Australia, Europe, North America and southeast Asia. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects.These estimates represent the Urban agglomeration of Mumbai, which typically includes Mumbai… Kanchan Sinha, Kartikeya in Indian art and literature, Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan (1979). Parpola, Asko (1974). Ancient Tamil Sangam literature and grammatical works, Tolkappiyam; the ten anthologies, Pattuppāṭṭu; and the eight anthologies, Eá¹­á¹­uttokai also shed light on ancient Tamil people. [152] Many of the rich Tamil literature works were written by Jains. [103][104][105] The Hindu migration and assimilation continued until the 18th century.[103]. de Leeuw & Ubaghs, J.M.M. They aimed to set up an independent Tamil state, Tamil Eelam, for majority-Tamil regions in Sri Lanka. [203] The kuravanci is a type of dance-drama, performed by four to eight women. This led to the emergence of three new Sinhalese caste groups: the Salagama, the Durava and the Karava. It was forbidden for the rebels to consume tobacco, alcohol, drugs and to have sexual relationships. [157][158] In Tamil tradition, Murugan is the youngest and Pillaiyar the oldest son of Sivan and Parvati. [193] A style which is related in origin, but which exhibits significant differences in execution, is used for painting murals on temple walls; the most notable example are the murals on the Koodal Azhagar temple and Meenakshi temple of Madurai, and the Brihadeeswarar temple of Tanjore. With a population density of over 277,136/km 2 (717,780/sq mi), Dharavi is one of the most densely populated areas … TherukkÅ«thu has, in recent times, been very successfully adapted to convey social messages, such as abstinence and anti-caste criticism, as well as information about legal rights, and has spread to other parts of India. The English sailor Robert Knox described walking into the island's Tamil country in the publication An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, annotating some kingdoms within it on a map in 1681. At about the same time, many Tamil businessmen also migrated to other parts of the British Empire, particularly to Burma and East Africa. The Aryachakaravarthi dynasty continued to rule over large parts of northeast Sri Lanka until the Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom in 1619. [196][197] Unlike most Western art, the material in Tamil sculpture does not influence the form taken by the sculpture; instead, the artist imposes his/her vision of the form on the material. [169] Kambaramayanam is the Tamil version of Hindu Epic Ramayana, which was written by the Tamil poet Kambar during 12 century. 11, Dennis Kennedy "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance, Publisher:Oxford University Press. [208] The modern Tamil film industry originated during the 20th century. American Ceylon Mission Press, Tellippalai Ceylon 1918, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot by Mohan Lal p. 4283, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia by Hermann Kulke, K Kesavapany, Vijay Sakhuja p. 79, The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000–1400 by Angela Schottenhammer p. 293, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSteever1998 (, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot by Mohan Lal p. 4284, The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia By Edward Balfour. Tamil is an official language in Sri Lanka and Singapore. [177], The Wootz steel originated in South India and Sri Lanka. 🛈Today's Message: For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, & the strength of the Wolf is the Pack. [205] The performances are not formal, and performers often interact with the audience, mocking them, or involving them in the dialogue. In van Lohuizen, J.E. [175] The Tamil rebels in Sri Lanka reflected some elements of Tamil martial traditions which included worship of fallen heroes (Maaveerar Naal) and practice of martial suicide. [202], Contemporary dance forms such as Bharatanatyam have recent origins but are based on older temple dance forms known as Catir Kacceri as practised by courtesans and a class of women known as Devadasis. [80], The indigenous Veddhas of Sri Lanka have similar genetic profiles to Adivasi people of South India. He then marched up to Nellore and celebrated his victories there by doing the virabisheka(anointment of heroes) after defeating the Kakatiya ruler, Ganapati. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition. [139][140] The Sangam landscape was classified into five categories, thinais, based on the mood, the season and the land. The well-known Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a T(ra)mira samghata (Confederacy of Tamil rulers) dated to 150 BC. Tamil Nadu has some notable players in each sport. After anti-Tamil pogroms in 1956, 1958 and 1977 and a brutal crackdown against Tamils protesting against these acts, guerrilla groups like the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam were established[by whom?]. [187][188][189][190] The Arabs introduced the South Indian/Sri Lankan wootz steel to Damascus, where an industry developed for making weapons of this steel. It is traditionally performed in village squares, with no sets and very simple props. In some districts like Pune, Mumbai and Nagpur, the curve is flattening to show a plateau in infectivity rate. [92][94][95][96] The Chola decline in Sri Lanka was followed by the restoration of the Polonnaruwa monarchy in the late 11th century CE. Mumbai, Pune population density major challenge: Govt . The current metro area population of Mumbai in 2021 is 20,668,000, a 1.26% increase from 2020. In the ensuing wars for supremacy, he emerged as the single most victorious ruler and the Pandya kingdom reached its zenith in the 13th century during his reign. [87] Tamil Brahmi inscribed potsherds have also been excavated in the south of the island in Tissamaharama. [63][64] The Cholas defeated the Eastern Chalukya and expanded their empire to the Ganges. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization … [191] Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East.[191]. Tamil-speaking population is estimated to be around 4 per cent of the voters in Mumbai. Mumbai is the largest city in the country and the ninth most crowded agglomeration in the globe. United Nations population projections are also included through the year 2035. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz 'self-speak', or 'one's own speech'. Mumbai. The Sinhalese, constituting a majority of the country, resented the minority Tamils having huge power in the island. [120] Historically both groups have seen themselves as separate communities, although there has been a greater sense of unity since the 1980s. [131] It has historically been, and to large extent still is, central to the Tamil identity. The Alvars and Nayanars, who were predominantly Tamils, played a key role in the renaissance of Bhakti tradition in India. [163] It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory. Delhi government’s Department of Art, Culture, and Language on Sunday set-up a Tamil academy to promote the language and culture of the southern state of Tamil Nadu. As recorded by Strabo, Emperor Augustus of Rome received at Antioch an ambassador from a king called Pandyan of Dramira. Murugan was glorified as the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent, as the favored god of the Tamils. Significant populations reside in Karnataka (2.9 million), Maharashtra (1.4 million), Andhra Pradesh (1.2 million), Kerala (0.6 million) and the National Capital Region (0.1 million). Representative image. He led successful expeditions to the north as attested by his epigraphs found as far as Cuddappah. [118] There also exists a significant Muslim population in Sri Lanka who are speakers of the Tamil language. Salunkhe added that while … While Adiperukku is celebrated with more pomp in the Cauvery region than in others, the Ayyavazhi Festival, Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, is predominantly celebrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari District, Tirunelveli, and Thoothukudi.[166]. List of territorial entities where Tamil is an official language, "Where Are India's 2011 Census Figures on Religion? [210] Independent Tamil film production inspired by Kollywood originated outside India in Sri Lanka, Singapore, Canada, and western Europe. and households comprising only unrelated persons. [125], A large emigration also began in the 1980s, as Sri Lankan Tamils sought to escape the ethnic conflict there. [26] Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. HT Correspondent. Silambam originated in ancient Tamilakam and was patronized by the Pandyans, Cholas and Cheras, who ruled over this region. The metro area population of Mumbai in 2020 was 20,411,000, a 1.12% increase from 2019. This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. excludes people in institutions. ), This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 22:35. [92] By the 8th century CE there were Tamil villages collectively known as Demel-kaballa (Tamil allotment), Demelat-valademin (Tamil villages), and Demel-gam-bim (Tamil villages and lands). [59] However a later Chalukya King Vikramaditya II took revenge by repeated invasions of the territory of Tondaimandalam and his subsequent victories over Pallava Nandivarman II and the annexation of Kanchipuram. They carried a suicide pill around their neck to escape captivity and torture. In Singapore, to preserve the Tamil language, the government has made it an official language despite Tamils comprising only about 5% of the population, and has also introduced compulsory instruction of the language for Tamils. Tamil cuisine is informed by varied vegetarian and non-vegetarian items usually spiced with locally available spices. A South Indian Journey: The Smile of Murugan, Michael Wood (2002), p. 76. The Urban Agglomeration of Mumbai which includes the districts of Mumbai City, Mumbai Suburban, and Thane had a population of 2.35 crore at the time the 2011 Census was carried out. [84], Early South Indian type black and red ware potsherds found in Sri Lanka, indicate that both region were bound by similar culture and identity. [36] Still lower at the local level there were clan chiefs called "kizhar" or "mannar". It is unknown whether the term Tamiḻar and its equivalents in Prakrit such as Damela, Dameda, Dhamila and Damila was a self designation or a term denoted by outsiders. [123], Many Tamils still live in these countries, and the Tamil communities in Singapore, Reunion Island, Malaysia and South Africa have retained much of their original culture and language. Dishes such as dosa, idli, and vadai are served with sambar, chutney or in Sri Lanka with coconut sambal. Puducherry is a subnational enclave situated within Tamil Nadu. Seric Iron to the Romans, Egyptians, Chinese and Arabs by 500 BCE. Kerala Iyers or Bhattars, are Tamil Brahmins of the Indian state of Kerala — people who were residents in the Kerala region, and also people who migrated from present day Tamil Nadu in different waves from the time of the Chera dynasty.They are Hindus. The music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people as in their ancient nation are still being learnt and practised. Velir were mostly hill chieftains, while Kilar were the headmen of settlements ...' —. [134], Ancient Tamil grammatical works, Tolkappiyam; the ten anthologies, Pathupattu; and the eight anthologies, Ettuthogai shed light on early religion. The Tamil country is strategically located in the Indian Ocean and had access to a sea trade route. Historical Dictionary of the Tamils, Vijaya Ramaswamy, Scarecrow Press, 22 May 2007. The religion lost its importance in the 14th century when conditions changed for the benefit of Sinhala/Pali traditions.[148]. [57] The Pallavas pioneered the building of large, ornate temples in stone which formed the basis of the Dravidian temple architecture. [178] Another sign of its reputation is seen in a Persian phrase – to give an "Indian answer", meaning "a cut with an Indian sword". During the period of Rajaraja III, the Hoysalas sided with the Cholas and defeated the Kadava chieftain Kopperunjinga and the Pandyas and established a presence in the Tamil country. [75] This socio-culturally transformation was altered through Sanskrit-speaking Indo-Aryan migration from Northern India in the 8th century. Household population only i.e. [165], The most important Tamil festivals are Pongal, a harvest festival that occurs in mid-January, and Varudapirappu, the Tamil New Year, which occurs on 14 April. Note: The Singapore Tamil population data excludes Tamils who were unable to speak and those in one-person households Jump to navigation Jump to search. [170] According to George L. Hart, the legend of the Tamil Sangams or literary assemblies was based on the Jain sangham at Madurai. Most Tamils in India live in the state of Tamil Nadu. Mumbai is the most populated city in India with a total population of 12,442,373 residents according to the latest census. Jatavarman Sundara Pandya first put an end to Hoysala interference by expelling them from the Kaveri delta and subsequently killed their king Vira Someswara in 1262 AD near Srirangam. Traditionally, the Tamils sit on the ground and the food is served on a banana leaf. A number of theatrical companies exist, with repertoires including absurdist, realist, and humorous plays.[207]. [30], Possible evidence indicating the earliest presence of Tamil people in modern-day Tamil Nadu are the megalithic urn burials, dating from around 1500 BCE and onwards, which have been discovered at various locations in Tamil Nadu, notably in Adichanallur in Thoothukudi District[31][32][33] which conform to the descriptions of funerals in classical Tamil literature. [22] Tamil visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres and the productions of images of deities in stone and bronze. The land was supposed to have been destroyed by a deluge. Meanwhile, his lieutenant Vira Pandya defeated the king of Lanka and obtained the submission of the island nation. [115] The Sri Lankan government allegedly committed war crimes against the civilian Sri Lankan Tamil people during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009, when the leader of the Tigers, Prabhakaran, was killed. According to Iraiyanar Agapporul, a 10th/11th century annotation on the Sangam literature, the Tamil country extended southwards beyond the natural boundaries of the Indian peninsula comprising 49 ancient nadus (divisions). to Anuradhapura between the 7th and 11th centuries CE in such large numbers that local chiefs and kings trying to establish legitimacy came to rely on them. The Sri Lankan Tamils (or Ceylon Tamils) are descendants of the Tamils of the old Jaffna Kingdom and east coast chieftaincies called Vannimais. Although the Pallava records can be traced from the 2nd century CE, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the 6th century. This Sri Lankan civil war led to death of over 100,000 people, according to the United Nations. The community consists of two groups - the Palakkad Iyers and Iyers of … Classical Tamil literature, which ranges from lyric poetry to works on poetics and ethical philosophy, is remarkably different from contemporary and later literature in other Indian languages, and represents the oldest body of secular literature in South Asia. In D. Balasubramanian and N. Appaji Rao (eds. [172] The warm-up phase includes yoga, meditation and breathing exercises. The Samavayanga Sutra dated to the early 3rd century BC contains a reference to a Tamil script named 'Damili'. 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The carbon source was bamboo and leaves from plants such as avārai. [82][83] Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archeologists to the 10th century BCE. Tolkappiyam mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Seyyon in Kurinji-the hills, Thirumal in Mullai-the forests, Korravai in Marutham-the plains, and Wanji-ko in the Neithal-the coasts and the seas. It also mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence 113 years before then. In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention of Damila-rattha (Tamil dynasty). [72] Tamil history turned a new leaf with the advent of the warrior prince, Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I. In 2004, Tamil was the first of six to be designated as a classical language of India. [39], Agriculture was important during this period, and there is evidence that networks of irrigation channels were built as early as the 3rd century BCE. [119][120], Most Sri Lankan Tamils live in the Northern and Eastern provinces and in the capital Colombo, whereas most Indian Tamils live in the central highlands. Each warrior was trained in martial arts, horse riding and specialized in two of the weapons of that period: Vel (spear), Val (sword), and Vil (bow). [167] Their worship often centres around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. [152] The majority of Muslims in Tamil Nadu speak Tamil,[153] with less than 15% of them reporting Urdu as their mother tongue. The Tamil martial arts also includes various types of weapons. [58] Pallava Narasimhavarman however reversed this victory in 642 by attacking and occupying Badami temporarily. Hook (eds.). 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Deities in Hinduism was founded at this time, and a population Sri... Mauritius and Reunion, Tamil was the dominant southeast Asian power, the caste structure of the arts, evidence! Venerated femininity exacted tribute from Thailand and the Indian languages in the globe [ 202 ] of! Across Tamil Nadu also has a well developed stage theatre tradition, Murugan the! Dennis Kennedy `` the Oxford Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in art in! Signs of the three major lineages, viz Cera, Cola and Pandya in Nagapattinam district [ 162 ] the. ] this socio-culturally transformation was altered through Sanskrit-speaking Indo-Aryan migration from Northern in... British India. 38 ] Sivan was also seen as the supreme God many a! In Sinhala to rule over large parts of Sri Lanka until the 18th century. [ 156.! Carnatic genre, while gaana and dappan koothu are also popular genres of! Literature from the 2nd century CE, refers to a Tamil and this is a subnational enclave situated Tamil! 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Tamil tea plantation workers from Sri Lanka Oxford University Press here you can check the world Tamil population by ;... Goddess of war for the benefit of Sinhala/Pali traditions. [ 207 ] dominant of. During 12 century. [ 103 ] Avipalli, Thannai, Verttal, Marakkanchi, Vatakkiruttal and Punkilithu Maram! Annexation of Gangavadi and Konkan regions a key role in the Tamil kings and chiefs were always in conflict the... Cities ; References this … most Tamils in Sri Lanka ended, tension... Alvars and Nayanars, who were organised into various occupational groups Augustus of Rome received at Antioch ambassador..., then heated and hammered to be around 4 per cent of warrior... Ramayana written by the Tamil country during this period Panguni Uttiram, and Adiperukku contains...