b) produce carbohydrate, c) provide the energy required for the dark reactions, d) use O2 in the production of ATP, e) include two of the above. well-lit upper layer of the oceans where photosynthesis can occur. process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds. Now that we have that out of the way, let’s look at the 4 main steps of photosynthesis: Step 1 The plant takes in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through the stomata on its leaves. a) decrease, b) no effect, c) increase. One of the three-carbon molecules of G3P leaves the cycle to become a part of a carbohydrate molecule. Energizes electrons with a second input of light energy so they can be used to reduce NADP+. Choose from 500 different sets of biology photosynthesis light 1 plants flashcards on Quizlet. Water donates electrons to one end of the ETC, whereas NADP+ accepts electrons at the other end. a) red, b) orange, c) yellow, d) green, e) blue. a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. The algae in the ocean consume about _________ of the carbon dioxide released into the airs. Photolysis involves ________. Write. a) FAD, b) PGA, c) NADP+, d) FMN, e) PEP. In biology a "limiting factor" is a condition or substance that, by its absence or short supply, limits the rate at which a biological process can proceed. What are the two products of photosynthesis? a) plasma membrane of the cell, b) membranes of the mitochondria, c) membranes of the thylakoids, d) membranes surrounding the chloroplast, e) stroma of the chloroplast. Start studying Steps of Photosynthesis. In the dark reactions of photosynthesis, __________. ATP is required for the regeneration of RuBP, raising the Calvin cycle's total energy requirements to two molecules of NADPH and three molecules of ATP for each molecule of CO2 incorporated by rubisco. a) Two different light-driven events are necessary if electrons are to be moved allthe way from H2O to NADP, b) The pigment molecules that trap light energy are built into the thylakoid membranes, c) There are at least two different places in the overall noncyclic pathway where energized electrons are passed energetically downhill via a series of electron-carrier substances, d) One of the products of noncyclic photophosphorylation that help make possible the dark reactions of the Calvin cycle is NADPH, e) Some of the energy released during electron transport is used to hydrolyze ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate. High energy phosphate bonds are formed during which process? The light-independent reactions were discovered by ____. This initiates a light driven chain of redox reactions that leads to the formation of NADPH. ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate: (RuBP) A molecule that completes the first and last steps of the Calvin cycle, which creates sugar out of carbon dioxide. How is ATP formed during photosynthesis? Photosynthesis captures just a small percentage of incoming solar energy. The process begins with the absorption of sunlight by protein-pigment complexes. how many of each did you make? The oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from ______________. A) RuBP, b) FAD, c) oxaloacetate., d) ATP. light energy(photon) is converted into chemical energy. Select the exception. Consists of large, light absorbing "head" containing a magnesium atom at its center and a long hydrocarbon "tail". So to build carbohydrates using CO2 requires the input of energy, which comes from sunlight. The reduction of 3-PGA involves two steps: (1) ATP donates a phosphate group to 3-PGA, and (2) NADPH tranders two electrons plus one proton (H+) to the phosphorylated compound, which releases one phosphate group. photosynthesis formula. The light reactions of photosynthesis take place in the __________ of the chloroplast whereas the dark reactions take place in the ___________? a) formation of phosphoglyceric acid, b) donation of an electron from the photosystem to an acceptor, c) fixation of carbon dioxide, d) breakdown of the thylakoid membrane, e) formation of phosphoglyceraldebyde. When the transfer takes place, the reaction center becomes oxidized and the adjacent electron-acceptor molecule is reduced. It produces oxygen and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P or GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules that are high in energy and can subsequently be converted into glucose, sucrose, or other sugar molecules. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration, a) respiration is the exact reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis, b) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, and respiration releases it, c) Photosynthesis takes place only in the light, and respiration takes place only in the dark, d) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration only in animals, e) ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration. a) photorespire, b) synthesize carbohydrate, c) fix carbon dioxide into PEP). An important electron and hydrogen acceptor in noncyclic photophosphorylation is _____. These reactions actually have several names associated with them. which wave length would probably be green? Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the "dark reactions". Cyclic photophosphorylation ________. photoevent. Some of the energy released during electron transport is used to hydrolyze ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate. The final step that occurs during noncyclic photophosphorylation is ________. ), Describe how Photorespiration leads to a net loss of energy and carbon. a) PGAL is synthesized, b) oxygen is produced, c) water is split, d) ATP is synthesized, e) electrons are returned to the chlorophyll molecule. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), d) glucose, e) oxaloacetate. What are the two challenges to photosynthesis efficiency? The light reactions of photosynthesis ____________ a) provide CO2 for the dark reactions. a) The C4 pathway is more common in tropical plants than in temperate-zone plants, b) The C3 pathway is more common in temperate-zone plants than in tropical plants, c) C4 plants are more efficient than C plants at fixing CO2 when the concentration of available CO2 is low and oxygen high, d) The C4 pathway requires two different light-driven events, whereas the C3 pathway requires only one, e) Some C4 plants are now very important crop plants in the Middle Wes. Second, the cytochrome complex and plastoquinone together function as a proton pump that is functionally and evolutionarily related to proton pumping in the electron transport chain of cellular respiration. “Photosynthesis Steps:” During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide enters through the stomata, water is absorbed by the root hairs from the soil and is carried to the leaves through the xylem vessels. Learn. The biochemical pathway used in photosynthesis to synthesize carbohydrates from CO2. The first event in photosynthesis is the _________. The Calvin Cycle. Match. The "first step" in photosynthesis is the _____. Sign in Register; Hide. Which one of the following statements concerning these is false? ... What happens to the remaining G3P molecules in the last step of the dark reactions? The products of the light reactions necessary to drive the dark reactions are ______________. Plants need which of the following to carry on photosynthesis? a) occurs between photosystems I and 11, b) is called the hydrogen transfer system, c) provides energy to produce ATP molecules, d) causes excitation of chlorophyll molecules, e) requires the intermediary action of acceptor molecules. A) 3, b) 6, c)10, d) 12, e) 18. Because two molecules of 3-PGA are formed each time rubisco catalyzes the incorporation of one molecule of CO2, two ATP and two NADPH are required for each molecules of CO2. Which of the following occurs in noncyclic, but not in cyclic photophosphorylation? In the first step, CO2 is added to a 5-carbon sugar called ribulose 1, aka RuBP This step is catalyzed by the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, or rubisco for short. a) photons are packages of solar energy, b) the longer the wavelength of light, the more energy it has, c) chlorophyll absorbs energy from light, d) photons with different energy levels produce different colors, e) visible light is a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A) corn, b) pine, c) sugarcane, d) crabgrass, e) all except b. STUDY. . Steps of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in two main stages, the first stage being towards light reaction and the second stage being the Calvin Benson Cycle. Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. What is the importance of the mitochondria? Light, water, chlorophyll, and carbon dioxide are the basic requirements for this process. The cells in the mesophyll in a ________leaf are usually arranged in a ring around the bundle sheath. In cyclic electron transport, electrons from photosystem 1 are redirected from ferredoxin back into the electron transport chain. provide the electrons needed to reduce NADP. thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts How does the buildup of protons in the thylakoid occur? a) chemiosmotic theory, b) photosystem mechanism, c) process of photolysis, d) electron transfer system, e) cyclic pathway. Tropical rain forests, grasslands, and forests). Specifically, it is located in the thylakoid membrane. The two stages of photosynthesis are light reactions and the Calvin cycle; light reactions take place first, forming the photo portion of photosynthesis, while the Calvin cycle follows, completing the cycle with several steps involving photosynthesis. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. All but which condition must be present for light-independent reactions to occur? Plants need which of the following to carry on photosynthesis? The light reactions of photosynthesis take place within the ____________? This would leave ADP as a by-product. Photosynthesis is the major pathway by which energy and carbon are incorporated into carbohydrates. For this energy increase to take place, the carbon compounds formed by rubisco must be reduced. An enzyme that adds O2 to another molecule is called an oxygenase. a) the splitting of CO2 during photosynthesis, b) cyclic photophosphorylation, c) noncyclic photophosphorylation, d) both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation, e) the Calvin cycle. In chloroplasts, as in mitochondria, ATP is synthesized by ATP synthase, a transmembrane protein powered by a proton gradient. This process joins ADP and a phosphate (phosphorylation) which becomes ATP. The light-harvesting reactions use sunlight to produce the ATP and NADPH required by the Calvin cycle. What is the source of the electrons that reduce NADP during photosynthesis? 1) Chemicals detoxify reactive oxygen species. Most of the fossil fuels come from passed/ancient __________. The absorbed sunlight provides the energy that drives electrons through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. In the noncyclic pathways ________. Explain how/why this is? a) electron flow causes H+ ions to be transported into the thylakoid, b) NADP is produced, c) water is split, d) both photosystems I and II are involved, e) oxygen is generated. Ms_JMiller TEACHER. University. Learn about photosynthesis with free interactive flashcards. Select the exception. a) chlorophyll, b) CO2, c) glucose, d) sunlight, e) ATP. a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. In the reaction centers during photophosphorylation, _______________. It transfers electrons that allow carbohydrates to be synthesized from CO2. This accumulation on one side of the thylakoid membrane can then be used to power the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Photosynthesis is a complex process that can be divided into two or more stages, such light-dependent and light-independent reactions. Most carbon enters the web of life through _____________. Select the exception. What are the purpose of carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis? That one exception is __________, a) PGA, b) RuDP, c) PGAL, d) O2, e) glucose. What do the light harvesting reactions use to produce what? The result of O2 added instead of CO2 is one molecule with three carbon atoms and one molecule with only two carbon atoms. The first step in the NADP-ME type C 4 pathway is the conversion of pyruvate (Pyr) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), by the enzyme Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). Concluded that trees gain most of their mass by storing water. (very efficient), what happens when visible light is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule. A hole in the semiconductor sense of the word, a missing electron from the chemical-bond electrons. Rubisco can use both CO2 and O2. Describe the Photosynthetic electron transport chain. When P2 loses an electron, it is able to pull electrons from water. Three Main steps: (1) Carboxylation, in which CO2 is added to a 5-carbon molecule; (2) reduction, in which energy and electrons are transferred to the compounds formed in step 1; and (3) regeneration of the 5-carbon molecule needed for carboxylation. The "first step" in photosynthesis is the ____________. Four of the five answers listed below are heterotrophs. The formation of glucose-6-phosphate (sugar phosphate) from two molecules of phosphoglyceraldehyde.. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. When light energy is absorbed by a leaf, the first result will be ____? In photosynthetic prokaryotes, it is located in membranes within cytoplasm or, in some cases, directly in the plasma membrane. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldebyde (PGAL), d) glucose, e) oxaloacetate. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. Carbon dioxide is incorporated first into an unstable intermediate compound and then into phosphoglycerate. Under conditions of high light intensity, intense heat, and dryness, a C4 plant would ____________. a) electronflow, b) splitting of water molecules, c) synthesis of ATP, d) transfer of electrons to carrier molecules, e) establishment of an H+ ion gradient. The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see with our eyes. Photosynthesis is the source of all food we eat: Direct consumption of plant material and indirect consumption of meat. The first step of the light-dependent reaction is. Chemiosmosis-protons accumulate in the thylakoid and a concentration gradient develops and protons begin to diffuse through the ATP synthase . rx. Before rubisco can act as a carboxylase, RuBP and CO2 must diffuse into its active site. The first step involves an antenna complex absorbing a photon. When light excites chlorophyll, the chlorophyll molecule _____. a) thylakoid, b) stroma, c) lamella, d) mitochondrion, e) tracheid. Donation of an electron from the photosystem to an acceptor, Where in a plant cell is chlorophyll found? Rubisco is responsible for the addition of the carbon atoms needed for the formation of carbohydrates, but by itself, rubisco does not increase the amount of energy stored in the formed bonds. The carbon source for organisms that derive their energy from photosynthesis is ________. By definition, photosynthesis is a process by which photoautotrophs convert the energy derived from the Sun into usable chemical energy. Select the exception. a) in freshwater lakes, b) in the deep ocean, c) in the surface waters all over the ocean, d) along the shores. (ex. An antenna complex is an assemblage of various molecules, including notably chlorophyll ones. Start studying photosynthesis and cellular respiration test. IN mitochondria, carbohydrates are broken down to generate ATP. The molecular oxygen that is evolved/released during photosynthesis comes from _________? Has this changed? https://lms.uconn.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-2536245-dt-content-rid-38351167_1/courses/M1188-BIOL-1108-001.020/Photosynthesis%282%29.pdf. Form structures that resemble flattened sacs, and these sacs are grouped into structures called grana. a) C-1, b) C-2, c) C-3, d) C-4, e) C-5. Absorb some wavelengths of visible light. The electron-transport molecules of photophosphorylation are ___________. Subsequent dark reactions can take place in the absence of light and are used by the plant to produce chemicals it can use in its biological … An enzyme that adds CO2 to another molecule is called a carboxylase. NADPH is the reducing agent. a) flow of electrons, b) synthesis of ATP through an H+ gradient, c) synthesis of NADPH, d) absorption of light by chlorophyll. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. a) Carbon dioxide is present, b) The plant is exposed to light, c) Ribulose bisphosphate is present, d) ATP and NADPH are present, e) Required enzymes are present. a) grana, b) stroma, c) lamellae, d) cristae, e) none of the above. In plants, photosynthesis is used to convert light energy from sunlight into chemical energy (glucose). Which one of the following statements concerning noncyclic photophosphorylation is false? a) water is oxidized, b) NADP is reduced, c) light energy(photon) is converted into chemical energy, d) ATP is synthesized from ADP and Pi, e) an electrochemical gradient is established. a) true, b) false. 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