The most accepted theory explains that the name was derived from the Nahuatl language meaning "the place where the water of the rivers meet" (i.e., "confluence", cf. As in other parts of northern Mexico, the peregrinos Catholicism greatly influenced the colonial era, and the city became a meeting point for pilgrims on their way to "La Sierra", a mountainous region in which the indigenous people had not yet converted to Catholicism. On March 25, 1866, a battle ensued in the Plaza de Armas in the center of Chihuahua City between the French imperial forces that were guarding the plaza and the Republican forces led by General Terrazas. Such was the case for the brewing industry, foundries, flours and textiles, where machinery driven by steam, electric power or gasoline was worked on, which continued with an advanced technological level. The origin of the city of Chihuahua begins with the discovery of the nearby mines and foundation of the population of Santa Eulalia in 1652 by Spanish captain Diego del Castillo, however; due to the climate and constant attacks of the indigenous people the exploitation was suspended and Santa Eulalia remained several years uninhabited. Inhabitants of the state later developed farming with the domestication of corn. Javier Garfio Pacheco of the PRI won election for a 3-year term as mayor. On May 5, 1881, the first telephone line was inaugurated by Félix Francisco Maceyra, manager of Banco Mexicano. The Feria (Fair) of Santa Rita, known throughout the Republic, is held during the last two weeks of May and features internationally known recording artists in concert. Comandante-general J.J.Calvo threatened to retaliate, and a conflict seemed imminent. According to the census by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) in 2005, the state population is 3,241,444 making the state the 11th most populated state in Mexico. The Battle of Sacramento was the most important battle fought in the state of Chihuahua because it was the sole defense for the state capital. The steppe zone accounts for a third of the state's area, and it experiences pronounced dry and wet seasons. The main cause of degradation has been grazing. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, by American diplomat Nicholas Trist and Mexican plenipotentiary representatives Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto, and Miguel Atristain, ended the war, gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, and established the U.S.–Mexican border of the Rio Grande. Díaz was announced the winner of the election by a landslide, triggering the revolution. [68] The average employee wage in Chihuahua is approximately 193 pesos per day. After their loss at the Battle of Sacramento, the remaining Mexican soldiers retreated south, leaving the city to American occupation. Shortly after the president left Chihuahua City, Terrazas was restored as governor of the state on December 11, 1865. Agricultural production makes up only 6% of the total GSP, however the state is the leading producer of apples, nuts, cattle and sheep raising nationally, and second in pine and oak trees harvested. By the year 1786 the Villa de Chihuahua was a Mayor's and on April 1, 1797 the first census was lifted in the city of Chihuahua by Don Fructuoso Simón de Herrera with the following summary: 324 men, 396 women, total 720 inhabitants. President Juárez remained in the state capital until August 5, 1865 when he left for El Paso del Norte (present-day Ciudad Juárez) due to evidence that the French were to attack the city. Although Chihuahua is primarily identified with its namesake, the Chihuahuan Desert, it has more forests than any other state in Mexico, aside from Durango. In 1901 the Heroes Theater (Teatro de los Héroes) opened in Chihuahua City. In 1923 Villa was assassinated by a group of seven gunmen who ambushed him while he was sitting in the back seat of his car in Parral. [47] The state is home to one of the largest variation species of the genus Pinus in the world. The city of Chihuahua has a number of tourist sites, including the museums in Chihuahua, the baroque Metropolitan Cathedral, seat of the Archdiocese (and the resting place of St Peter of Jesus Maldonado, a Cristero martyr of the 1930s), dating from the 18th century, the Government Palace from the early 19th century, and the City Hall from the turn of the 20th century, on the Plaza de Armas across from the cathedral. After the American invasion of New Mexico, Chihuahua sent 12,000 men led by Colonel Vidal to the border to stop the American military advance into the state. Defeated by the Porphyrists at the Avalos ranch on 19 September, the legitimate authorities resumed the exercise of their duties in the capital. To the north and northeast, it shares an extensive border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. The northern portion of the state continued to decline economically which led to another revolt led by G. Casavantes in August 1879; Governor Trías was accused of misappropriation of funds and inefficient administration of the state. Extensive archaeological evidence shows commerce, agriculture, and hunting at Paquimé and Cuarenta Casas (Forty Houses). The state has an important dairy industry with large milk processors throughout the state. 1950 123,000. Two candidates were registered; Lerdo de Tejada and General Porfirio Díaz, one of the heroes of the Battle of Puebla which had taken place on May 5, 1862. Archaeologists believe the civilization began to decline during the 13th century and by the 15th century the inhabitants of Paquimé sought refuge in the Sierra Madre Occidental while others are thought to have emigrated north and joined the Ancestral Pueblo peoples. Data are updated following the release of population data by INEGI. Precipitation and temperature in the mountainous areas depends on the elevation. By the late 1920s, some 7,000 had immigrated to Chihuahua State and Durango State, almost all from Canada, only a few from the U.S. and Russia. On July 8, 1865 Brincourt crossed the Nazas River in northern Durango, heading toward Chihuahua. Chihuahua has the largest amount of forested land in all of Mexico. Small business employs the largest portion of the population. The Díaz administration helped Governor Luis Terrazas by funding the Municipal Public Library in Chihuahua City and passing a federal initiative for the construction of the railroad from Chihuahua City to Ciudad Júarez. Juárez stopped in Ciudad Jiménez, Valle de Allende, and Hidalgo de Parral, in turn. [35] During the campaign Díaz incarcerated Madero on election day in 1910. [30] It would have been easy for the French forces to continue in pursuit of President Juárez across the border, but they feared altercations with American forces. American black bear Ursus americanus is also found but in very small numbers. Insisting on a new election, Madero won overwhelmingly in late 1911, and he established a liberal democracy and received support from the United States and popular leaders such as Orozco and Villa. [23] Most of the precipitation falls during the summer months, when the monsoon moves up northwards, causing moist air from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of Mexico to move into the city. The Chihuahuan Desert is an international biome that also extends into the neighboring Mexican state of Coahuila and into the U.S. states of Texas and New Mexico. Because of the different geologic regions there are contrasting climates and ecosystems. Chihuahua Mobile (Digital Chihuahua) via Wi-Fi. The North, including Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon and Zacatecas, contained around 9%. [66] While export-driven manufacturing is one of the most important components of the state's economy, the industrial sector is quite diverse and can be broken down into several sectors, which are: electronics, agro-industrial, wood base manufacturing, mineral, and biotech. The Federal Police and the Army have moved into the city to conduct anti-drug operations; it seems that their activity may have a positive effect; the indices of property crime and murder have fallen[38] since 2010, with the result that Chihuahua is safer now than in years past. The steppe zone is the most populated area of the state. Hidalgo reached Saltillo, Coahuila where he publicly resigned his military post and rejected a pardon offered by Viceroy Francisco Venegas in return for Hidalgo's surrender. [48] Although there are many reptilian species in the mountains the most observed species include: Northern Mexican pine snake, Pituophis deppei jani, Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus), black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus), and plateau tiger salamander Ambystoma velasci, one of possibly many amphibians to be found in the mountains. Pine in Mexico, and large Mennonite communities was cordoned off by the army and police.! 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