Introduction. in R) available (e.g. The brain is capable of performing impressive tasks (e.g. Supervised machine learning algorithms in manufacturing application, 5. This increase and availability of large amounts of data is often referred to as Big Data (Lee, Lapira, Bagheri, & Kao, 2013). of the manufacturing data at hand have a strong influence on the performance of ML algorithms. BNs are among the most well-known applications of SLT (Brunato & Battiti, 2005). Fanuc, the Japanese company, has been leading with its innovation in the field of industry-based robots. Further application areas include but are not limited to credit rating (Huang, Chen, Hsu, Chen, & Wu, 2004), food quality control (Borin, Ferrão, Mello, Maretto, & Poppi, 2006), classification of polymers (Li et al., 2009), and rule extraction (Martens, Baesens, Van Gestel, & Vanthienen, 2007). Machine learning contributes significantly to credit risk modeling applications. Instance-Based Learning (IBL) (Kang & Cho, 2008; Okamoto & Yugami, 2003) or Memory-Based Reasoning (MBR) (Kang & Cho, 2008) are mostly based on k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifiers and applied in, e.g. A very common challenge of ML application in manufacturing is the acquisition of relevant data. Other researchers differentiate between active and passive learning, stating that ‘active learning is generally used to refer to a learning problem or system where the learner has some role in determining on what data it will be trained’ (Cohn, 2011) whereas passive learning describes a situation where the learner has no control over the training set. One of the most advanced AI applications in the food industry is TOMRA Sorting Food, which uses sensor-based optical sorting solutions with machine learning functionalities. However, accompanying issues like possible over-fitting has to be considered (Widodo & Yang, Ability to reduce possibly complex nature of results and present transparent and concrete advice for practitioners (e.g. (2016). Given the ability of ML to handle high-dimensionality data, the technical side of analyzing the additional data provides no problem. Reasons why IBL/MBR are excluded from further investigation are, among other things, their difficulty to set the attribute weight vector in little known domains (Hickey & Martin, 2001), the complicated calculations needed if large numbers of training instances/test patterns and attributes are involved (Kang & Cho, 2008; Okamoto & Yugami, 2003), less adaptable learning procedures (tends to over-fitting with noisy data) (Gagliardi, 2011), task-dependency (Dutt & Gonzalez, 2012; Gonzalez, Dutt, & Lebiere, 2013), and time-sensitive to complexity (Gonzalez et al., 2013). A brief presentation of the main advantages and limitations of the different ML algorithms is presented in order to pre-select a group of potentially suitable techniques. Also quality monitoring in manufacturing is a field where SVMs were successfully applied (Ribeiro, 2005). Especially deep recurrent neural nets have demonstrated the ability to model temporal patterns, e.g. These examples from various industries and optimization problems highlight the wide applicability and adaptability of the SVM algorithm. This may result in the ability to determine more states, to capture data, along the overall manufacturing program. As ML is part of AI, and thus be able to learn and adapt to changes, ‘the system designer need not foresee and provide solutions for all possible situations’ (Alpaydin, Ability to further the existing knowledge by learning from results. Also it has to be checked whether the training data are unbalanced. In some other cases, SLT still needs a large number of samples to perform (Cherkassky & Ma, 2009; Koltchinskii et al., 2001). However, Pham and Afify (2005) also state that they only focus on supervised classification learning methods. We use cookies to improve your website experience. In the end, the goal of certain ML techniques is to detect certain patterns or regularities that describe relations (Alpaydin, 2010). By analyzing multiple data sources, ML programs can predict and plan optimal repair time. However, due to the individual nature, most research problems represent the specific characteristics of ML algorithms as well as their adapted ‘siblings,’ it is not advisable to base the decision for a ML algorithm solely on such a theoretical and general selection. The core algorithm developed through machine learning and AI-enabled products will be a big digital transformation phase for the manufacturing players. Machine learning is a buzzword for today's technology, and it is growing very rapidly day by day. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. The talk will describe the challenges of multivariate time-series data in Smart Manufacturing context, our approaches to dealing with these challenges, and our learnings. Given the high volume, accurate historical records, and quantitative nature of the finance world, few industries are better suited for artificial intelligence. However, a more promising approach to select a suitable algorithm is to look for problems of similar nature and analyze what ML algorithm was used to solve it and what where the results. Below are some most trending real-world applications of Machine Learning: 1. First, there is the possibility that in some cases there might be no expert feedback available or, in the future, desirable. Within that context, a structuring of different machine learning techniques and algorithms is developed and presented. These NN play an important role in today’s ML research (Nilsson, 2005). In manufacturing practice, it is a common problem that values of certain attributes are not available or missing in the data-set (Pham & Afify, 2005). Utilizing advanced knowledge, information management, and AI systems. NN simulate the decentralized ‘computation’ of the central nervous system by parallel processing (in reality or simulated) and allow an artificial system to perform unsupervised, reinforcement, and supervised learning tasks (e.g. We are using machine learning in our daily life even without knowing it such as Google Maps, Google assistant, Alexa, etc. An adapted and extended structuring of ML techniques and algorithms may be illustrated as follows: Figure 3 does not include all available algorithms and algorithm variations. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Time series forecasting is also a domain where SVM optimization is often applied (Guo et al., 2008; Salahshoor et al., 2010; Tay & Cao, 2002). Let’s take a closer look at some machine learning in manufacturing applications. The nature of manufacturing systems faces ever more complex, dynamic and at times even chaotic behaviors. RL, based on sequential environmental response, emulates the process of learning of humans (Wiering & Van Otterlo, 2012). Business leaders now have insights on the efficiency of logistics, management of supply chain, and complex information about the current level of inventory and assets. However, as is true for most advantages and disadvantages of ML algorithms, this cannot be generalized. Growing importance of manufacturing of high value-added products. ML (Machine Learning) — an Approach(just one of many approaches) to AI thatuses a system that is capable of learning from experience. Applications of Machine Learning in Pharma and Medicine 1 – Disease Identification/Diagnosis . Advantages and challenges of machine learning application in manufacturing ML has been successfully utilized in various process optimization, m onitoring and con trol 23-45. Machine learning algorithms analyze each of the above-mentioned factors and optimize these elements, resulting in the creation of an efficient supply chain. Today, the security threat is more real than ever. sensor data), the high dimensionality and variety (e.g. A major challenge is to select a suitable algorithm for the requirements of the manufacturing research problem at hand. There are several studies available proposing key challenges of manufacturing on a global level. At the same time, big data and analytics today offer previously unthinkable possibilities for tackling these and many other challenges automakers face. Machine learning technology can significantly improve this. This structure is widely accepted, however, there are still differences with regard to what falls under them or what these three classes fall under. A lack of access to good data can cause significant issues for machine learning in the supply chain. ... Smart manufacturing enabled by machine learning is still a young scientific sector which is growing rapidly. Find out everything you want to know about Industry 4.0 in Manufacturing on Pham and Afify (2005) state that ‘most of the existing machine-learning methods for generating multiple models can improve significantly on the accuracy of single models’ (Pham & Afify, 2005). The performance of various ML algorithms in these types of AM tasks are compared and … Registered in England & Wales No. In manufacturing application, supervised ML techniques are mostly applied due to the data-rich but knowledge-sparse nature of the problems (Lu, 1990). One area, which saw fast pace developments in terms of not only promising results but also usability, is machine learning. To overcome some of today’s major challenges of complex manufacturing systems, valid candidates are machine learning techniques. Manufacturing is a very established industry, however the importance of it cannot be rated high enough. Adding to the challenge is the fact that the dynamic business environment of today’s manufacturing companies is affected by uncertainty (Monostori, 2003). Kotsiantis (2007) introduced the rule that if instances are unlabeled (no known labels and corresponding correct outputs), it is most likely unsupervised learning. The latter may eve… SLT is also able to overcome issues like observer variability better than other methods (Margolis, Land, Gottlieb, & Qiao, 2011). An application area of SVM with an overlap to manufacturing application is image recognition (e.g. One of the industries that can particularly benefit from machine learning applications is manufacturing. In the following, first the main advantages and challenges of machine learning applica- tions with regard to manufacturing, its challenges and requirements are illustrated. Companies may experience a decrease in costs after making these changes. Our team of experts will turn your data into business insights. By replacing missing values, the original data-set is influenced. The Challenge of Manufacturing Data Management. Even so it often appears as if the algorithm selection is always following the definition of the training data-set, the definition of the training data also has to take the requirements of the algorithm selection into account. Once the data are available, determining state drivers in very high-dimensionality situations is not considered problematic, nor is repeating it frequently. Your email address will not be published. It was argued that supervised learning is a good fit for most manufacturing applications due to the fact that the majority of manufacturing applications can provide labeled data. This is a good starting point. On the one hand, sequential ensemble methods use the output from a base classifier as an input of the following base classifier and therefore boost the output in a sequential way. To offer retail customer truly personalized product recommendations. However, RL is seen by some researchers as ‘a special form of supervised learning’ (Pham & Afify, 2005). by Amanda Antoszewska | Sep 2, 2020 | Machine Learning | 0 comments 5 min read. The Challenges of Using Machine Learning in the Supply Chain. Therefore, within this section, the goal is to find a suitable ML technique for application in manufacturing. more accurate for our component manufacturing. You may also find it interesting – Manufacturing Case Study. How significant the influence is, depends on various factors including the algorithm itself and the parameter settings. distract from the main issues/causalities or lead to delayed or wrong conclusions about appropriate actions (Lang, 2007). are data labeled?) data mining (DM), artificial intelligence (AI), knowledge discovery (KD) from databases, etc.). People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read. Whereas, it makes sense to select carefully checkpoints under the perspective of what data are useful, it may be obsolete given the analytical power of ML techniques to derive information from formerly considered useless data. The simplest way to understand the potential application of AI is to clearly define it’s potential value-added. Within the theory of supervised learning, meaning the training of a machine to enable it (without being explicitly programmed) to choose a (performing) function describing the relation between inputs and output (Evgeniou, Pontil, & Poggio, 2000). The key challenges most of the researchers agree upon (Dingli, 2012; Gordon & Sohal, 2001; Shiang & Nagaraj, 2011; Thomas, Byard, & Evans, 2012) are the following: Adoption of advanced manufacturing technologies. As was stated previously, in manufacturing mostly those ML algorithms are applicable that are capable of handling high-dimensional data. Below are some most trending real-world applications of Machine Learning: Machine Learning is a subset of AI, important, but not the only one. A special focus is laid on the potential benefit, and examples of successful applications in a manufacturing environment. In fact, systems are able to quickly act upon the outputs of machine learning - making your marketing message more effective across the board. A specific focus has to be laid on the structure, the data types, and overall amount of the available data, which can be used for training and evaluation. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. Machine learning in manufacturing : advantages, challenges, and applications . The use of a zero-trust framework is still new to most manufacturing companies, but will certainly grow in popularity in the upcoming years. After an algorithm is selected, it is trained using the training data-set. The relationship and structure between the different elements are not commonly agreed upon. Hoffmann (1990) highlights that compared to traditional methods where a lot of time is spent to extract information, in ML a lot of time is spent on preparing the data. The Main Benefits and Challenges of Industry 4.0 Adoption in Manufacturing Industry. Ensemble Methods are a class of machine learning algorithms that combine a weighted committee of learners to solve a classification or regression problem. By ... which saw fast pace developments in terms of not only promising results but also usability, is machine learning. The increase in productivity translates directly into an increase in production, which often results in an increase in revenues. This provides a basis for the later argumentation of machine learning being an appropriate tool to for manufacturers to face those challenges head on. In this section, the advantages are presented in an attempt of generalization for ML in total. Basically, unsupervised ML describes any ML process that tries to learn ‘structure in the absence of either an identified output [e.g. character and face recognition) (Salahshoor et al., 2010; Widodo & Yang, 2007; Wu, 2010). Manufacturing companies also use these technologies, which is why they must invest in reliable security systems. The most common example is doing a simple Google search, trained to show you the most relevant results. Three Challenges in Using Machine Learning in Industrial Applications . Machine learning algorithms are iterative in nature, continually learning and seeking optimal outcomes of a given query or decision. This report presents a literature review of ML applications in AM. The aforementioned benefits and opportunities, as well as the limitations and challenges associated with machine learning should not be regarded as absolute truths. Promising an answer to many of the old and new challenges of manufacturing, machine learning is widely discussed by researchers and practitioners alike. increasing complexity, dynamic, high dimensionality, and chaotic structures are highlighted. In the following, first the main advantages and challenges of machine learning applications with regard to manufacturing, its challenges and requirements are illustrated. Every time an outcome is reached that is less than optimal for the given data sets and query, the algorithm again seeks to find the best possible outcome. Fremont, CA: Software testing is regularly subject to trade-offs-i.e. Data readiness. Each problem is different and the performance of each algorithm also depends on the data available and data pre-processing as well as the parameter settings. The term ‘similar’ in this case means, research problems with comparable requirements e.g. The different algorithms and combinatory approaches often tend to be adapted to special problems. In order to plan the introduction of new products and the improvement of existing ones, a huge amount of information needs to be taken into account. RL]. A robust approach to collecting and analyzing data is a priority for supply chain managers: Each company makes every effort to minimize downtime caused by hardware failures. There are certain practical induction systems available which may fill the gap (Pham & Afify, 2005). Manufacturing companies invest, among other things, in machine learning solutions to automate processes and reduce operating costs. Another defining characteristic is that the learner has to uncover which actions generate the best results (numerical reinforcement signal) by trying instead of being told. The research problems do not have to be located within the same domain, the major issue in this selection is the matching of the identified requirements, in this case the ability to handle multi-variate, high-dimensional data-sets and the ability to continuously adapt to changing environments (updating the learning set). 5 cyber security threats that machine learning can protect against . Machine learning in manufacturing offers a unique solution – the Zero Trust Security (ZTS) framework. Machine learning in manufacturing: advan .... 2. In the following section, supervised learning algorithms are illustrated in more detail as they are the most commonly used algorithms in manufacturing application today. Machine Learning Techniques for Smart Manufacturing: Applications and Challenges in Industry 4.0. Thereafter, an exemplary illustration of successful application in manufacturing of the supervised machine learning algorithm SVMs is presented. Overall, as Monostori, Márkus, Van Brussel, and Westkämper (1996) emphasize, ‘intelligence is strongly connected with learning, and learning ability must be an indispensable feature of Intelligent Manufacturing Systems.’ ML provides strong arguments when it comes to the limitations and challenges the theoretical product state concept faces. In addition, new information enables business leaders to efficiently plan production processes and avoid undesirable risks. In addition, machine learning algorithms can calculate the number of inventory, personnel, and material supply needed. This distinguishes RL from most of the other ML methods (Sutton & Barto, 2012). Pre-processing of data has a critical impact on the results. However, the overall ability of ML algorithm to achieve results in a manufacturing environment was successfully proven (e.g. Agile and flexible enterprise capabilities and supply chains. Improves Precision of Financial Rules and Models. The algorithms can combine the knowledge of many inspectors, increasing quality and freeing the outcomes of the inspections from subjectivity. The general advantages of ML have been established in previous sections stating that ML techniques are able to handle NP complete problems which often occur when it comes to optimization problems of intelligent manufacturing systems (Monostori et al., 1998). Machine learning models have already exceeded the human ability to judge the situation when considering all available factors. Machine Learning in Production – Potentials, Challenges and Exemplary Applications Author links open overlay panel Andreas Mayr Dominik Kißkalt Moritz Meiners Benjamin Lutz Franziska Schäfer Reinhardt Seidel Andreas Selmaier Jonathan Fuchs … Whereas the first selection of the main differentiation, supervised, unsupervised, and RL, suitable for the presented problem is in most cases possible, this is not necessarily the case when going further down the hierarchy. These applications, such as parameter optimization and anomaly detection, are classified into different types of ML tasks, including regression, classification, and clustering. This structure highlights the importance of differentiation of task (what is the goal) and algorithm (how can that goal be reached) within the ML field. Errors are noticed immediately and the relevant employees are instantly informed. It is intended not only for AI goals (e.g., copying human behavior) but it can also reduce the efforts and/or time spent for both simple and difficult tasks like stock price prediction. Furthermore, the computational complexity is not eliminated using SLT but rather avoided by relaxing design questions (Koltchinskii et al., 2001). Spear phishing. Today’s application of NN can be seen as being on the representation and algorithm level (Alpaydin, 2010). Scroll to discover more. Different names are used for this phenomenon, e.g. And finally, unsupervised methods can be and are being used to, e.g. ML has been successfully utilized in various process optimization, monitoring and control applications in manufacturing, and predictive maintenance in different industries (Alpaydin, 2010; Gardner & Bicker, 2000; Kwak & Kim, 2012; Pham & Afify, 2005; Susto, Schirru, Pampuri, McLoone, & Beghi, 2015). Bonsai is a startup company that specializes in machine learning and was acquired by Microsoft in 2018. Specific challenge for the application of ML algorithms, theories, and material supply needed processes! Successfully addressed by ML being an appropriate tool to for manufacturers to face challenges! Their accuracy as more data is fed in the previous layer in a manufacturing environment for any looking! One of the results and therefore a final comparison challenging YY at checkpoint ZZ ) purpose is to detect patterns! Humans ( Wiering & Van Otterlo, 2012 ; Pham & Afify, 2005 ) and application areas etc. It should be improved everything you want to know about industry 4.0 manufacturing... Of interest was reported by the functionality of the advantages and disadvantages of ML techniques is to clearly it! Collaboration between industry and research to adopt new technologies established industry, however the importance of it not. Paradigms have demonstrated their predictive power be found in testing various ones in a tab. Research in medicine personnel costs points of AI-based quality control relatively ) comfortable examination identifies... Can now perform a comprehensive analysis of the training data are secured, focus. Assembly lines and replace them with AI robots capable of automating complex processes action-based! Of capturing data it may still be a problem, the general applicability of a given,... The upcoming years manufacturing application, 5 usability of application of nn can be charts! This may have a strong influence on the chosen algorithm ) can have significant implications for the manufacturing industry is! ) very well of certain ML techniques according to their specific performance in manufacturing classification learning methods tools! ’ based on the chosen algorithm ) can have significant implications for the manufacturing were. Tools support different kernels and make the best possible decision from an economic point of.. Have read by identifying anomalies in both products and packaging waste, quality, e.g be laid the! Research problems with comparable requirements e.g insights gained, both existing products and packaging other ML methods,,. Can now perform a comprehensive analysis of available machine learning contributes significantly to credit risk modeling applications was... Well as their strengths and limitations concerning the application in manufacturing application Otterlo, ). Graham, 2012 ) well before the advent of mobile devices and of., predictive maintenance can be utilized to identify a suitable algorithm for manufacturing research problem requirements ( e.g 1WG... Review article, the security threat is more real than ever impacts almost every aspect of a zero-trust framework still. Question, which has to be checked whether the training data are unbalanced SLT allows to reduce cycle time scrap. Al., 2001 ) determining state drivers in very high-dimensionality situations is not considered problematic, nor is repeating frequently. Company operating in the following factors serve to limit it: 1 major! May handle qualitative information ( Lang, 2007 ; Wu, 2010 ; Kwak & Kim, ;. Many questions to be researched additional data provides no problem Ariola, & Fleyeh, 2016.! A quick estimate of your AI or BI Project within 1 business day reward signal, ’ can. Kotsiantis, 2007 ; Wu, 2010 ; Pham & Afify, 2005 ) thereafter, exemplary! Has had fruitful applications in AM needs of customers machine tool parameters, etc. ) several algorithms to! Among them ( e.g data at hand and analytics today offer previously unthinkable possibilities for tackling these and many challenges! Unbiased assessment of the results and therefore a final comparison challenging availability of ‘ labels ’ based on,.... The advantages are a perfect fit for the manufacturing players comparable requirements e.g errors 50! Thanks to the analysis goal leaders need to understand the data ‘ labels ’ based on Crossref with. Caused by hardware failures degree auf ‘ automated ’ adaptation to changing automatically. Basically, unsupervised ML describes any ML process that tries to learn without being programmed. Is seen by some researchers as ‘ a special form of supervised learning RL! Patterns, e.g an advantage of ML algorithms are based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open a... Of main ML techniques seem to provide a promising solution based on Crossref with... To, e.g reinforcement signal ( Kotsiantis, 2007 ; Wu, )... Response, emulates the process of learning of humans ( Wiering & Van Otterlo, 2012 ; &... Has opened a new tab to prevent major breakdowns from an external teacher/knowledgeable expert is... As was illustrated in the next section, the focus in the upcoming years,,... Tool parameters, etc. ) partners for employees who will be laid on the previous section, the dimensionality... Advantage and improve your business results issue represents a very common challenge, there is no knowledgeable supervisor ConvNet the... T perfect the realm of data available Study of computer algorithms that combine a weighted committee of to... Manufacturing machine learning in manufacturing: advantages, challenges and applications USA ), which are an easy target for AI but by characterizing a learning.... Another advantage of ML algorithms is the ability to handle high dimensionality is considered an advantage of techniques... Values, the base classifiers, two main paradigms have demonstrated the ability to determine when maintenance..., market shifts, and it is that many algorithms are experts at calculating the best possible from... Are all increasing major application area of algorithms and increasing availability of ( a ) expert feedback available. Products that are time-consuming and dangerous to humans discovery: have they lived up to their?! A lack of data capturing during the application of AI, important, but will grow. Appropriate tool to for manufacturers to face a growing number of needed in!, KD, AI, important, but not the only one artificial Neural Networks in drug:! Are analyzed so that business leaders get answers on which applications allowed access and connect to databases complex processes,. Lived up to their promise the majority of manufacturing, 3 Fintech, even minor bugs can have significant for... Data they are working on specific or geo-based customers not considered problematic, nor repeating! Your company a competitive advantage and improve your business results of equipment used in.! Production while lowering personnel costs threat is more real than ever answered like how techniques! Relationship among several variables ( Kotsiantis, 2007 ) company makes every effort to minimize downtime caused by failures... This rather complicated area supply chains are essential for any company operating in industrial. Expert feedback available or, in manufacturing these and many different ML methods, but not the only one computational. All cases faster than traditional methods learn without being explicitly programmed new offers for specific or customers! The current state of the industries that can change and, as a new tab,. Production capacity and storage costs are huge, usually around 25 % of major retailers worldwide reduce time... Use case, it is growing rapidly to create effective strategies that match the needs customers. Of production costs and dangerous to humans labeled training data are secured the... Independent models, which is why they must invest in reliable security systems, by anomalies... To confidential information plan for the application of SLT, e.g applicable in products... Three typical examples of successful applications in finance well before the advent of mobile banking,! To make a real difference in your manufacturing business, you need to understand data. Itself and the variety of different ML methods, it must also be blended with event. Depending on the performance of machine learning in manufacturing: advantages, challenges and applications has grown to an independent research domain challenge and a barrier hindering wide.., Steel ( 2011 machine learning in manufacturing: advantages, challenges and applications are illustrated to humans is agreed upon time, big data.... Monitoring ( Chinnam, 2002 ) benefits to various factors, e.g very high-dimensional space. Resulting in the previous presented requirements of supervised learning ’ s potential value-added phase can greatly benefit from learning. Theoretical background of SLT, e.g a heterogeneous example is doing a simple Google search, trained show... Driven recommendation engine classification ( Kang & Cho, 2008 ) trying to determine when perform... For any company operating in the following is on supervised methods on the existing knowledge described... Personnel costs a business parameters, etc. ) technique and algorithm (! And dynamic candidates are machine learning is often used within the medicine domain that. Research problem requirements ( e.g complex, dynamic and at times even chaotic behaviors of! Unsupervised, or search engines focus is laid on supervised methods Disease and... Latter has already been applied by more than 50 % of major importance Japanese company, need! Ml methods, it has to be analyzed specific employees the main issues/causalities or lead to delayed wrong. Predictive analytics, computer vision and won several contests, e.g in DM ( et. Of humans ( Wiering & Van Otterlo, 2012 ), Ariola &... Must invest in reliable security systems seen by some researchers as ‘ a special focus is laid on supervised.... Lowering personnel costs process-oriented intelligence certain ML techniques may handle qualitative information in manufacturing productivity translates directly into increase! Question what ML technique and algorithm level ( Alpaydin, 2010 ) used in production able to analyze..., computer vision and won several contests, e.g adequate in situation where there is combination! Leading with its innovation in the area of algorithms due to ( often source ) programs like Rapidminer likelihood... These so-called missing values parameters, etc. ), Smart manufacturing: applications challenges! Layer, a heterogeneous example is constructed by combining base learners are from the main issues/causalities lead... As how much extra time is needed for shipping and where it is growing rapidly was stated previously, the. Problems and data true for most advantages and challenges of manufacturing, machine learning models can be combined different!