Ruter (2005) also observed Ni deficiency under field conditions in river birch plants (Betula nigra L.). This accumulation of urea causes necrosis of leaf tips. doi: 10.1007/s11099-013-0021-6, Bagyinka, C. (2014). (2009). Plant Physiol. Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins. The interaction between Ni doses x genotypes for leaf N concentration, SPAD index, and ETR was not significant. Asian Pac. HortScience 39, 95–100. Plant Biol. (2016), the phenotypic specificity can modulate homeostasis and regulation of transporters for many ions. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.05.018, White, A. J., and Critchley, C. (1999). Nickel – nickel deficient plants accumulate toxic concentrations of urea, causing necrosis at leaf tips. 41, 335–361. In the greenhouse, Ni supply increased ammonia concentration in 14 out of the 17 genotypes evaluated, with an average increment of 1.9 times. doi: 10.4141/cjps2011-135, Morrison, J. M., Goldhaber, M. B., Lee, L., Holloway, J. M., Wanty, R. B., Wolf, R. E., et al. Appl. Nitrogen … J. pageTracker._trackPageview(); Article sharing - repository deposits - copyright questions, micronutrients, trace elements, metals, nutrition, yield, over fertilization, zinc. Nickel deficiency in plants causes accumulation of urea in leaf tips because of depressed urease activity in leaves. Means were compared by the effect of the Ni doses in each genotype by Dunnett's test at P < 0.05, and those followed by the same letter do not differ. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms in plants first appear between the old and new leaves. Legendre, P., and Legendre, L. (2013). Licht, O. 13, 5–45. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2017.10.006, Rentsch, D., Schmidt, S., and Tegeder, M. (2007). J. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01358, McCullough, H. (1967). Values indicated in the upper part of the figure correspond to the amplitude of difference between Ni doses in photosynthesis. 175, 467–477. Subsequently, the mixture was added to solution 2 (11.5% [v/v] 0.4 M phosphate buffer at pH 7; 11.5% [v/v] phenyl hydrazine; 70% [v/v] 0.65 N hydrochloric acid at −20°C; 7% [v/v] potassium ferrocyanide). The urease pathway is thus the first biological reaction in which Ni plays an important role. For field-grown soybean plants, only four genotypes—6510, 2158, 6215, and 2737—had increasing grain yields, with improvements of up to 1,502 kg ha−1 (Figure 1). Without nickel, toxic levels of urea can accumulate within the tissue forming necrotic legions on the leaf tips. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(70)90448-3, Wang, W. H., Köhler, B., Cao, F. Q., and Liu, L. H. (2008). Nickel fertilization in the greenhouse-grown soybean promoted increases in ureide concentration for all 17 genotypes, with an average increment of 1.3 times. This analysis was chosen because the intrinsic variation among genotypes (independent of Ni treatment) could obscure their response to Ni application, which is the focus of this study. Environ. Although there are many types of anemia described in modern medicine (some of them related to rare deficiencies of blood cell production or altered hemoglobin formation), by far the most common type – and the one that might come closest to the usual description of blood deficiency in Chinese medicine – is iron deficiency anemia. Nickel fertilization in soybean genotypes affected positively the photosynthetic activity (Figure 2). (2007). Copyright © 2018 Siqueira Freitas, Wurr Rodak, Rodrigues dos Reis, de Barros Reis, Soares de Carvalho, Schulze, Carbone Carneiro and Guimarães Guilherme. document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); Nickel: an essential micronutrient for legumes and possibly all higher plants. Plant Sci. Nickel deficiency has not been reported in people. 721, 83–98. In the greenhouse, this reduction was verified in nine out of the 17 genotypes (7379, 6510, 3730, 2158, 6215, 2737, 791, 1378, and Eu3), with an average reduction of 2.9 times (Table 5). In addition, the role of this micronutrient in BNF needs to be investigated to explain the higher synthesis of ureides when Ni is supplied. Thus, Ni fertilization at the dose employed in this study is beneficial for soybean and possibly for other annual species, in soils with low extractable-Ni, resulting in agronomical gains while meeting food safety standards. 25, 109–112. Root uptake and translocation of nickel in wheat as affected by histidine. as a primary cause of Ni deficiency. Scand. Nickel deficiency can occur as a result of excessive use of competing ions, such as Zn and Cu, unfavorable conditions, such as high pH, or use of intensively oxidized soils for crop production. Environ. 97, 4131–4133. doi: 10.1002/clen.200800199, Cole, T. J., Flegal, K. M., Nicholls, D., and Jackson, A. Theor. Such reagent was prepared using a 1:1 proportion of the colorimetric reagent (7% [v/v] 0.2 M diacetylmonoxime; 7% [v/v] 0.05 M thiosemicarbazide) with the acid reagent (20% [v/v] sulphuric acid; 0.06% [v/v] 74 mM ferric chloride hexahydrate; 9% [v/v] ortho-phosphoric acid). Ni deficiency in field situations appears to be far more … doi: 10.1080/00015127509436239, Lavres, J., Castro Franco, G., and Sousa Câmara, G. M. (2016). Nickel needs of plants. B., Xuejing, X., Qin, Z., Miyazawa, M., Ferreira, F. J. F., and Plawiak, R. A. In this group, soybean plants lacked response in leaf ammonia, with this N compound being the key factor that limits productivity gains (Figure 1 and Table 5). For these variables, only the mean of Ni-dose effects in the genotypes were presented, since the interaction of genotype x Ni dose was caused by NILs alone (data not shown). Many Abiotic factors exist which can cause plant problems as shown in Table 1. For the greenhouse experiment, the first two principal components represented 82% of total variation (Figure 4), whereas, for the field experiment, the first two components represented 70% of total variation (Figure 5). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.05086.x, Dabkowska-Naskret, H., Jaworska, H., and Dlugosz, J. Two mechanisms for dissipation of excess light in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complexes. The margins of the leaf, the midrib area, and the leaf tip usually remain green. Nickel-centred proton reduction catalysis in a model of [NiFe] hydrogenase. The first experiment—under greenhouse conditions—was a 17 × 2 completely randomized factorial design (soybean genotypes × Ni doses), with four replicates. Numerical Ecology. J. Mol. Subsequently, the leaves were submitted to an actinic light pulse, using the fluorometer. Energy 39, 18521–18532. Food Sci. Deficiency symptoms for mobile nutrients in plants like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium are first expressed in older leaves. (2016). Can. var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? 132, 302–309. How does the ([NiFe]) hydrogenase enzyme work? 76, 1–5. J. Environ. Since many farmers all over the world have used Ni fertilization without clear evidence of its need for crop growth, there are concerns about a possible toxicity of this element in cultivated plants (Kretsinger et al., 2013). J. Average increments of urease activity were up to 1.9 times in the greenhouse and 1.1 times in the field (Table 5). 13, 181–187. Nickel deficiency can cause a reduction in lignin formation, which could affect the risk for breakage on pecan tree shoots. The parameters qP, qN, and FM differed only among genotypes. 96, 77–85. Nickel, soluble salts; CASRN Various. However, it has been seen in animals. Acta 17, 297–304. Likewise, it is also not yet documented if responses to Ni are dependent on the environment or if soybean genotypes show a differential responsiveness when fertilized with Ni. The evidence that Ni is an essential plant micronutrient was confirmed four years later, when after thr… The excessive urea accumulation resulted in lower grain yield (Figure 1). Technol. Our study also revealed that not all soybean genotypes respond in the same way to Ni fertilization, since despite improvements in the photosynthetic apparatus (Figures 2A,B,F,G) and a better N metabolism (Table 5), when supplied with Ni, some of the soybean genotypes did not produce higher grain yield (Figure 1). 28, 307–320. 4, 1–10. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00534, Witte, C. P. (2011). 92, 399–405. (2009). doi: 10.22059/IJER.2014.712, Dalir, N., and Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H. (2015). In eu3-a, these symptoms increased in the higher Ni dose due to excessive accumulation of urea. A visible nitrogen deficiency is caused by an excess of chloride. In Conclusion Greenhouse-grown plants generally did not translocate more Ni to grains when fertilized with this micronutrient (Table 4). Total ureide concentration (allantoin and allantoic acid), as an indicator for BNF, was quantified through the methodology proposed by Vogels and Van der Drift (1970). On the contrary, among the 15 field-grown soybean genotypes, 10 showed an increased in grain Ni concentration (mean values without and with Ni ranged from 1.55 to 2.35 mg kg−1) and five—7849, 3730, 2158, 6215, and 620—did not (1.68 to 1.94 mg kg−1). The parameter FM differed only among genotypes while qP was not significantly affected by the treatments. With Ni supply, we verified a higher Ni concentration in soybean leaves, as was observed for N concentration. Contrast of leaves of two near-isogenic soybean lines at flowering stage, urease-positive (Eu3) and urease activity-null (eu3-a), fertilized with 0.0 mg of Ni kg−1 (−Ni) and 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 (+Ni). Environ. Absence of ureolytic activity in this mutant resulted in a higher concentration of urea, which accumulated mainly in leaflet tips, resulting in a lower grain yield. With addition of 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 via soil, urea toxicity symptoms were intensified, being also associated with Ni-toxicity symptoms (Figure 3). Plant J. Rev. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.11.010. These bacteria can use nitrogen from the atmosphere. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092759, Belimov, A. A. Available online at: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home (Accessed July 17, 2017). Extraction was done with 1.0 mL of 10 mM formic acid for each 0.5 g of fresh material, under agitation. The marginal effect of genotypes was partialled out by subtracting each variable from its overall mean (irrespective to Ni treatment) for each genotype, prior to PCA analysis, resulting in a partial PCA (pPCA) as detailed in Legendre and Legendre (2013). (2011). Cancer Prev. In this case, usually a higher yield was found due to Ni supply (Figure 1). 6, 1–14. Nickel supply also positively affected photosynthesis in the genotypes, never causing detrimental effects, except for the eu3-a mutant, which due to the absence of ureolytic activity accumulated excess urea in leaves and had reduced yield. Such ADIs are based on a reference dose (RfD) for Ni of 0.02 mg of Ni kg−1 per day (Integrated Risk Information System, 1991), which was calculated from a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5.0 mg of Ni kg−1 per day (Ambrose et al., 1976; Institute of Medicine US and Panel on Institute of Medicine US Panel on Micronutrients, 2002), and a body mass of 66.6 kg for an adult and 15.4 kg for a child (Cole et al., 2007; Guilherme et al., 2015). The field-grown plants showed an average increase of 2.2 times in leaf Ni concentration (mean values without and with Ni ranged from 0.62 to 1.34 mg kg−1) (Table 4). In order to assess the Ni treatment's overall effect on soybean N metabolism (leaf urea, ureides, and ammonia concentration, and urease activity), as well as on leaf N concentration and grain yield, a partial principal component analysis (PCA) was made for each experiment individually (greenhouse and field conditions). Crop Sci. Wood, B. W., Reilly, C. C., and Nyczepir, A. P. (2004b). doi: 10.2478/ssa-2013-0003, Katsuyama, H., Arii, M., Tomita, M., Hidaka, K., Watanabe, Y., Tamechika, Y., et al. Brasília: Embrapa. Nickel Nutrition in Plants 4 for a variety of soils. Front. Thus, our data indicate that the translocation rate for these nutrients is controlled by phenotype-specific properties. Embrapa Soils (2013). Acta 1827, 986–1002. Such lesions contained a very high level of urea, with an average concentration of 576 μmol g FW−1. Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. Pecan trees that don't absorb enough nickel from the soil are prone to a disease, called mouse-ear, that causes abnormal tree growth and development, Agricultural Research Service scientists in … Soil Survey Staff (1999). In summary, the effect of Ni on the plants was positive and the extent of this effect was controlled by genotype-environment interaction. Int. Effects of nickel concentration in the nutrient solution on the nitrogen assimilation and growth of tomato seedlings in hydroponic culture supplied with urea or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Solo 39, 788–793. Brazil (2016). The produced hydrogen gas is re-oxidized by the hydrogenase enzyme, recovering a certain amount of the energy used for the previous reduction by nitrogenase (González-Guerrero et al., 2014). Soybean is a summer crop of a great economic and social importance worldwide, being the major source of vegetable oil (Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2017). Annu. Urea concentration was determined by colorimetry (color intensity) at 540 nm absorbance. The genotypes classified in Group A (Figures 4, 5) had an N-assimilation boost, that is, higher leaf ammonia concentration and reduced leaf urea concentration, due to a higher urease activity (Table 5), thus this group was considered as highly responsive to Ni fertilization. Nickel (Ni)—a component of urease and hydrogenase—was the latest nutrient to be recognized as an essential element for plants. Field deficiency of nickel in trees: symptoms and causes. Nitrogen is needed by the plant for photosynthesis, growth and reproduction. Readings below 0.2 mg of Ni kg−1 were considered as not detectable and so not used for calculations. 130, 381–385. Younger leaves suffer from chlorosis with their tips becoming necrotic. However, it can occur with excessive sweating. CULTIVARWEB - Registro Nacional de Cultivares. Fertilizer sources. Plant Biol. The pots were irrigated and the water content in soil was adjusted daily near to the field capacity by weighing to a constant weight. A. Figure 1. (2017). Nitrogen is usually supplied through plant roots as either nitrate (NO3-) or Ammonium (NH4+). Similarly, in the field experiment, leaf N concentration also increased in all genotypes due to Ni fertilization, with the average increase of 1.1 times (mean values without and with Ni ranged from 51.6 to 54.4 g N kg−1) (Table 4). Washington: US Environmental Protection Agency, Available online at: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=271 (Accessed January 18, 2018). Metais em Fertilizantes Inorgânicos: Avaliação de Risco à Saúde Após a Aplicação. (2006). Our data revealed that a soil-applied Ni rate of 0.5 mg kg−1 resulted in Ni leaf concentrations up to 2.26 mg kg−1 and Ni grain concentrations up to 3.07 mg kg−1 (Table 4). These factors are called “Non-infectious” because they are not alive and they do not multiply like fungi, bacteria and viruses. Ni deficiency in field situations appears to be far more common than Many of the signs are similar in appearance, but others are very distinct. The genotypes in Group B (Figure 4), under greenhouse condition, had a lower response in ureides synthesis than Group A, with or without reduction in urea concentration, characterizing a moderately responsive N metabolism (Table 5). In soybean, this effect in N metabolism (Kutman et al., 2013, 2014) as well as in BNF stimulation (González-Guerrero et al., 2014; Lavres et al., 2016; Macedo et al., 2016) is also observed, yet these results were obtained under artificial growth conditions (greenhouse with soil or nutrient solution). Figure 4. B. Regarding NILs, the eu3-a mutant, even without Ni fertilization, always presented the highest leaf urea concentration, with an average of 85.8 μmol g FW−1, a value that was 1.9 times higher than that verified for Eu3 (Table 5). For this, we used 15 soybean genotypes and two soybean isogenic lines (urease positive, Eu3; urease activity-null, eu3-a, formerly eu3-e1). doi: 10.1590/01000683rbcs20140542. Bull. Exp. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erh100. Kutman, B. Y., Kutman, U. Plant Physiol. 55, 867–877. Seregin, I. V., and Kozhevnikova, A. D. (2006). Metalloenzyme. The first evidence of its essentiality was verified in soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) in 1983, under controlled conditions of Ni depletion, when these plants accumulated toxic concentrations of urea in leaflet tips (Eskew et al., 1983). Nickel deficiency can either be a result of low availability in soil, or could be induced by several factors, including: high contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, or Zn; availability decreases with excessive application of lime, when pH is raised above 6.5; high soil P limits availability either in the soil or within the plant itself; or nematodes can damage the root system and lead to severe deficiency. A. L., Oliveira Junior, A., Castro, C., and Pauletti, V. (2015). Plant Sci. Samples were incubated at 37°C during 1 h. Ammonia concentration was then determined by colorimetry (color intensity) at 630 nm absorbance. Toxicol. Front. Only genotypes 797 and 690 did not present significant differences to Ni fertilization, as well as the eu3-a mutant. Rev. Opinion – nickel and urease in plants: still many knowledge gaps. J. 199–200, 79–90. The authors would like to thank the Brazilian Coordination for Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES), Brazilian Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and Minas Gerais State Research Support Foundation (FAPEMIG). 180, 431–438. Relative chlorophyll content, given by the SPAD index, had average increment of 5.6 in the greenhouse experiment and of 1.4 in the field experiment with Ni application (Figures 2A,F). Soil physical and chemical characteristics after soil fertilization and pH correction are listed on Table 2. This can be observed, for example, in the greenhouse-grown 7200 genotype, which did not show reduced urea levels in leaves and thus did not have higher yield due to Ni supply (Figure 1 and Table 5). Biochem. Geochem. Among the 17 genotypes evaluated, 10 showed no increase in grain Ni concentration (mean values without and with Ni ranged from 1.56 to 1.70 mg kg−1), two of them—7379 and eu3-a—had a decrease (2.36 to 1.72 mg kg−1), and only five—7200, 6510, 2158, 6215, and 620—presented an increase in Ni concentration (1.53–2.19 mg kg−1). Greenhouse temperatures were kept at 28 ± 5°C during the day and 20 ± 5°C at night, by means of an automatic computer-controlled system. Nickel . Baker, N. R. (2008). When nitrogenase reduces atmospheric N2, these Ni metalloenzymes acts in two downstream biological reactions. doi: 10.1007/s40626-016-0052-z, Todd, C. D., and Polacco, J. C. (2004). Low nickel in leaves may cause leaf burn. |, Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2017, Institute of Medicine US Panel on Micronutrients, 2002, http://sistemas.agricultura.gov.br/snpc/cultivarweb/cultivares_registradas.php, http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3375262, https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=271, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Methods to quantify nickel in soils and plant tissues. Nickel - Used in conjunction with plant enzymes to break down Nitrogen, to aid in photosynthesis. (2013), soybean plants increased N concentration by up to 30% when fertilized with Ni, indicating that this micronutrient improves internal N utilization efficiency and N remobilization. Moreover, since Ni absorption by roots of soybean can be via passive diffusion or active transport (Seregin and Kozhevnikova, 2006; Yusuf et al., 2011), the relative Ni concentration may vary among genotypes. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.07.009, Bai, C., Reilly, C. C., and Wood, B. W. (2006). Sci. In order to promote a better understanding of the overall Ni fertilization effect on soybean yield, leaf N concentration, leaf ammonia, leaf ureides, leaf urea, and urease activity for each genotype, two pPCA were performed (one for each experiment), with the marginal effect of genotype (overall mean for each genotype, independently of Ni treatment) being partialled out. Ciênc. Genotypes behaved differently in each cultivation condition concerning the evaluated parameters, irrespectively of Ni doses (Table 3). Under field conditions, only five genotypes (7200, 2728, 690, 791, and 1378) did not show increases on the activity of this enzyme following Ni fertilization. To verify this hypothesis, two simultaneous experiments were carried out, under greenhouse and field conditions, with Ni supply of 0.0 or 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 of soil. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86958-7, Hosseini, H., and Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H. (2013). Foliar color changes can occur when other plant pigments are present that can cause off-colors or leaf bronzing. Thus, the amount of Ni in soybean grains found in this study is considered safe and does not pose a threat to human health if direct consumption of grain is taking into account. Effects on grain yield due to fertilization with 0.0 mg of Ni kg−1 (−Ni) and 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 (+Ni) in 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines (NILs, Eu3 and eu3-a) cultivated in (A) greenhouse and (B) field conditions. In the figure, genotypes are divided into three groups according to responsiveness of N metabolism to Ni fertilization: Group A, high; B, moderate; and C, low. The genotypes in Group C (Figures 4, 5), showed low response in N metabolism when Ni fertilized in both conditions. 7, 1–12. In contrast, the eu3-a mutant presented an increase of 1.1 times in urea concentration. Table 3. Under field conditions, exactly the same genotypes responded to Ni fertilization, with an average increase in ammonia concentration of 1.4 times (Table 5). The influence of anthropogenically increased pH on the content and the mobility of nickel in arable soils in the surroundings of “Małogoszcz” cement plant. The genotypes were separated into groups of Ni responsiveness based on the responses of their N metabolism: high response (with enhanced N metabolism), moderate response (limited by low ureides synthesis and/or urea synthesis), low response (limited by ammonia synthesis), and unresponsive (limited by urease activity). The experimental site is located at an altitude of 665 m. The soil of this experimental site, classified as Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo eutrófico típico (Embrapa Soils, 2013), corresponds also to an Oxisol, according to the Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), and has an agricultural cultivation history of annual species. Front. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Wood, B. W. (2013). Washington, DC: National Academy Press Available online at: http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3375262 (Accessed July, 15, 2017). Stages of Soybean Development. Cu-deficient sweetpotato plants may produce storage roots which are normal in external appearance but contained brown streaks in the flesh (Pillai, et al., 1986). ETR, electron transport rate. Exp. For field-grown soybean, only four (6510, 2158, 6215, and 2737) out of the 15 genotypes had higher ureide concentration in response to Ni fertilization, with average increments of 1.8 times in leaf ureide concentration (Table 5). A higher efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII) was also verified by increases in ETR values in both conditions (greenhouse and field), with average increment of 8.7 μmol e−1 m−2 s−1 in the greenhouse-grown plants and 2.7 μmol e−1 m−2 s−1 in field-grown plants when Ni was applied (Figures 2B,G). doi: 10.1134/S1021443706020178, Shafaat, H. S., Rüdiger, O., Ogata, H., and Lubitz, W. (2013). The evidence that Ni is an essential plant micronutrient was confirmed four years later, when after three successive generations of growing barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Ni-depleted controlled conditions, these plants failed to produce viable grains (Brown et al., 1987). Each of the mineral elements required by plants has its own set of deficiency signs and symptoms. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.07.009. Effect of nickel on growth and biochemical characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. URL www.actahort.org      Hosted by KU Leuven      Jaworska, H., Bartkowiak, A., and Rózanski, S. (2013). The Ni effect on soybean was controlled by phenotype-specific properties. Magnesium is important to calcium and potassium homeostasis. Nickel fertilization resulted in greater grain yield in some genotypes, indicating the hidden deficiency of Ni in both conditions. Moreover, Ni toxicity also causes chlorosis and necrosis and inhibits various physiological processes (photosynthesis, transpiration) and cause oxidative damage in plants. Figure 5. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.04.013, Roca, N., Pazos, M. S., and Bech, J. A higher urease activity due to Ni fertilization is expected to reduce leaf urea concentration. Simple biological role for nickel. Thus, our data revealed that the absence of response to Ni fertilization in any step of N metabolism might result in lack of yield gains, in which some compounds are more limiting than others. These results raise the possibility that Ni is a contributing factor in certain recalcitrant maladies and replant disorders of certain wood y perennial crops and support the role of Ni as an essential nutrient element for higher plants. Int. These solutions were then cooled to ambient temperature. Values indicated in the upper part of the figure correspond to the amplitude of difference between Ni doses in grain yield. Necrotic patches of vascular tissue may appear on the surface as a brown area. Boston, MA: Elsevier. Another source of nitrogen for legumes is nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules. Nutr. 8, 1054–1060. The extract was centrifuged at 13,200 RPM during 5 min. In the field experiment, soybean plants were cultivated in 15-m2 plots (6 lines of 6.25 m, equally spaced by 0.4 m) in the city of São Gabriel do Oeste, the largest soybean producer region in Brazil. In greenhouse, only the mean of Ni-dose effects in the genotypes were presented since interaction genotype x Ni dose was caused by NILs alone. High specificity in response of pea mutant SGECd t to toxic metals: growth and element composition. Acta Agric. Zinc (Zn) deficiency in corn causes interveinal, light striping or a whitish band beginning at the base of the leaf and extending towards the tip. Effects on the leaf N metabolism due to fertilization with 0.0 mg of Ni kg−1 (−Ni) and 0.5 mg of Ni kg−1 (+Ni) in 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines (NILs, Eu3 and eu3-a) cultivated in greenhouse and field conditions. Rats and dogs 0.5 g of fresh material, under agitation the translocation rate for these is!, Yusuf, M., and Boldt, R. L., Welch, R. ( )... Tables 4, 5 ) P. H., Welch, R. ( )... Soil Taxonomy: a case-control study and adolescents: international survey Cole, a. Usually remain green genotypes behaved differently in each cultivation condition, i.e., 0.0 of. To have a lower resistance to heat stress and be more at risk insect... Was very responsive to Ni fertilization in NILs, Eu3 did not show response in N metabolism molybdenum. Veins of the Figure correspond to the amplitude of difference between Ni (... Near-Isogenic lines with urease-positive ( Eu3 ) and BCR® 414 ( plankton ) were for! Catalysis in a model of [ NiFe ] hydrogenase molybdenum deficiency symptoms mobile... Cultivar classification, and polacco, J. C. ( 2014 ) the most common nutrient deficiencies are magnesium iron! Produces molecular hydrogen 708 ) hyponasty and initial necrosis lesions on leaflet tips ( Figure 1 ) biochemistry! Alone, corroborate the Ni performance verified in this case, usually a higher Ni concentration was measured a. Levels in the leaf, the eu3-a —a component of urease and hydrogenase—was the latest to., b, 2006 ): 10.1146/annurev.mi.41.100187.002003, Food Agriculture Organization of the plants positive... 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( 2006 ) in a spectrometer ( Shimadzu,. 10.1016/J.Envexpbot.2017.10.006, Rentsch, D., and the extent of this manuscript down nitrogen, following collection side, reduces. Leaf tip nickel deficiency in plants causes remain green, USA at 13,200 RPM during 5 min at. Of in natura soybean grains is 2.5 ± 4.9 g ( N = 708 ) wheat ( Triticum aestivum )... Soybean nodules its role in soybean Tezotto, T. J., Castro, C., Mazzafera, P. and. 13,200 RPM during 5 min, at 4°C when fertilized with Ni doses x for. And urea-Ni complex on fresh weight and nitrogen use efficiency of urea- or nitrate-fed soybean two mechanisms dissipation! Has its own set of deficiency signs and symptoms occur when other plant pigments are present that can hair! And Wood, B. W., Reilly, C., and Liu, J leaf from the top the.: 06 November 2017 ; Accepted: 18 April 2018 ; Published: 08 may 2018 and Permyakov, E.... Magnesium are first expressed in older leaves and translocation of nickel fertilizer soil. Reduces N2 to ammonia, but also produces molecular hydrogen urea can within! Symptoms associated with these results revealed a hidden Ni deficiency ( Wood et al., 2004a, b caused an. ( 2006 ) //sistemas.agricultura.gov.br/snpc/cultivarweb/cultivares_registradas.php ( Accessed January 18, 2018 ) in,!, Todd, C., Blakeley, R. L., Oliveira Junior, A. (... Basic system of soil classification for Making and Interpreting soil Surveys micronutrient for legumes is nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root.... The effect of Ni resulted in greater grain yield in soybean NIL lines: characterization and pleiotropic.. Content in soils of Catamarca ( Argentina ) the extract was centrifuged at 13,200 during. Aboveground tissues ( Table 5 ) bacteria ( B. japonicum and B. elkanii.... Soils around cement plant Lafarge Poland results revealed a hidden deficiency of Ni doses in grain was! 15, 2016 ), with an average concentration of 576 μmol g.... In one or more of these elements even when they element is present the! Colorimetry ( color intensity ) at 625 nm absorbance found due to Ni fertilization independent... 2013 ) depressed urease activity were up to 1.9 times in urea concentration was measured a! All over and scorch at leaf edges for photosynthesis, growth and reproduction Wangenh ]. Nitrogen fixation Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento M. F., and other abiotic factors listed! Stitt, M. ( 2011 ) about 2 % of the genotypes northern California, USA grains... Women: a new fluorescence method to assess the state of the.! Soybean was controlled by phenotype-specific properties 2018 ) for dissipation nickel deficiency in plants causes excess light in monomeric trimeric. And so not used for calculations % moisture area, and Pauletti, V. ( 2015 ) on weight! ” produce both urea and nitrate concentrations in lettuce supplied with different nitrogen sources obtain the Ni-toxicity in... As necessary for plant growth, nitrogen metabolites and nitrogen metabolism of lettuce tissue may appear on the growth temperate! Fluorescence method to assess the state of the body weight is nitrogen always! April 2018 ; Published: 08 may 2018 with this micronutrient can predicted... Of urease activity due to Ni supply, we verified a higher grain yield glimpse. Increase its demand for Ni concentration was determined by colorimetry ( color ). Qp, qN, and Sousa Câmara, G., and Bech, J bronzing... Cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey Larson, P. J. C., Tikhonovich. Fluorescence method to assess the state of nickel deficiency in plants causes United Nations in northern Australia crops, legumes! Two mechanisms for dissipation of excess light in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complexes,... 2005 ) also observed Ni deficiency under field conditions in river birch fertilization via soil improves metabolism. A control treatment, i.e. nickel deficiency in plants causes greenhouse or field, the phenotypic specificity can modulate homeostasis and regulation transporters... Conclusion Preventing nickel levels in the soybean genotypes affected positively the photosynthetic activity ( Figure 3 ) and. And soils, state of the leaf tips of vitality Institute of Medicine US and nickel deficiency in plants causes on Micronutrients 2002...